Most Japanese books and Japanese Internet information only mentioned that feldspar 100% is for Shino glazes. After a while I found that original Momoyama Shino glaze could have been a mixture of feldspar 100% + limestone 5%.
Yet I imagine individual Japanese potters have added a small amount of raw materials to the original recipe in order to improve their results.
…… We’ve kept up the 4 month firing cycle and are scheduled to fire between Christmas and New Year’s. The last couple firings have provided a ton of information and some good pieces. Last firing was extended by 20 hours or so beyond our normal schedule. The pieces were once-fired and for the most part, came out nicely. The major problem we had was with one particular glaze…a shino, when applied to stoneware. It shivered off many of the pots where fly ash melted. In researching for a solution….it seems that there is a problem with the silica/flux ratio in the glaze…I think we need more flux either in the glaze or the clay body. Since the pieces are firing well other than with this glaze…we’ll be adding more feldspar to this glaze. Still not sure exactly how much more flux we will add…I’m thinking maybe 5%. If you have any insights on this issue…I’d be happy to incorporate into the next batch. …… Trevor
I went to see Svend at his solo exhibition (at Goldmark Gallery, Uppingham). I believe that he is the most experienced wood-firer in the U.K.. I asked him if he would let me have his Shino recipe and he kindly sent me his Shino information.
……My “Shino” is in fact not my glaze at all, nor was it ever meant to be a Shino. Michael Cardew was interested in nepheline syenite as a glaze material for getting bright red colours many decades before potters in the west became interested in “Shinos”. At Wenford he resurected the glaze because its other quality was that it held on glaze painted iron very well, giving crisp black/brown/rust. I used that glaze for many years when I used to paint my pots and fire them in saggars. He used to use a high iron ball clay to get reds and a low iron one to paint on.
The glaze I now use is:
20.0% china clay,
37.5% neph. sy.,
40.0% soda feldspar
2.5% soda ash.
I used to paint it on. Now I bisque and use it much thicker and for want of a better word,
I call it Shino. …… Svend
While I was acting rather slow, I received another mail from Trevor.
Hello again Gas,
…… The last e-mail was brief and wanted to follow up with additional information.
The modified glaze recipe worked well…no shivering.
46.68 Kona Feldspar
10.62 Soda Ash
Revised (5% increase in Feldspar)
49.01 Kona Feldspar
10.62 Soda Ash
I can send you pics of the shivering and corrected glaze if you like. …… Trevor
Many thanks, Svend and Trevor! I am really grateful for your information.
I like Shino vessels with delightful lightness in my hands and the matt surface just like virgin snow. Using them for flower arranging and making green tea always give me an utmost pleasure.
I should not forget mentioning some important methods about Shino. It is not only the glaze but also every other factors would contribute to make lovely Shino in my opinion.
If you desire to achieve original Momoyama Shino features, it is crucial for you to have right kind of materials and techniques. You have right clay like Mogusa-tsuchi in Mino region, use saggars (for avoiding direct flames, smoke snd fly-ash), pack and fire your vessels in a wood-fire kiln very much like Momoyama style Ogama for a long firing and cooling period.
Apparently, the same Shino glaze is applied to cover Oni-Ita (from iron rich stone) for E-Shino (painted Shino), Nezumi Shino (grey sgraffito Shino) and Aka Shino (red Shino).
On the other hand, many potters in the U.K. and the States enjoy freely different kind of Shino. Their Shino seems to have gloss surface with the effects from wood-firings. I do not see anything wrong with shiny Shino with different recipe from Japanese ones. I myself still have been experimenting with Shino. I am more drawn to smoky Shino vessels in Anagama firings, and yet I might make saggers and use them in my kiln when I need to get snowy white textures.
Here’s 2 more Shino recipes from Patrick Sargent (1956-1998)
White Shino Glaze
75 Nepheline syenite
15 China clay
10 Ball clay
Orange Shino glaze
60 Nepheline syenite
40 Ball clay
….and I should be able to post Patrick ’s article soon as I am going to re-publish the article by Patrick Sargent from ‘Real Pottery’ (issue 57).
I am very much interested in Lisa Hammond’s experimental Shino in her soda firing. Lisa must have seen some really nice Shino chawan while she was staying in Mino (Japan) and working with Takahashi Ritsu (Mino potter now working in France) there. I understand that her soda kiln won’t be able to produce good white Shino but her soda firing (in her gas kiln) seemed to be working better with ‘red Shino’. She has been making many nice and exciting ’red Shino’ vessels.
Finally I am also looking forward to hearing about Shino glazes from other potters. (G.K)